Halogen bulbs – the standard light for every car
A halogen bulb represents a further development of the typical incandescent bulb. In halogen bulb, a filament traversed by electrical current. The high resistance of the thin wire compared to the current leads to the development of heat so that electrical energy converts into heat and light. The difference between a halogen bulb and a normal incandescent bulb lies in the operating temperature of up to 3100 K and the addition of the chemical factor iodine. Like the bromine previously used, iodine is one of the halogens that increase the life and luminous efficacy of incandescent bulbs. Due to the high temperatures, the bulbs emit a whiter light but require stable quartz glass bulbs to withstand the pressure.
The small size is a big advantage because halogen bulbs can use practically anywhere and without complex controls. This result makes them inexpensive and easily interchangeable. On the other hand, halogen bulbs are sensitive to contamination. For example, fingerprints can cause local temperature increases. On the one hand, it can black the piston; on the other hand, it causes the glass to crack. Therefore, always hold halogen bulbs by the base or clean them with grease-dissolving agents. Luminous halogen bulbs only have a lifespan of approx. 250 to 400 hours, which normally corresponds to a range of approx. 30,000 kilometers.
Xenon Light – noble gas
Unlike incandescent bulbs, there are xenon light no filament. Instead, they are gas discharge bulbs between two tungsten electrodes, and the high-pressure xenon gas filling ionized by high voltage. The resulting arc turns the gas into plasma. The resistance between the electrodes drops, and the existing metal halides evaporate. After a while, the arc reaches a constant shape, and the torch control unit stabilizes both the light output and the electrical power.
Xenon light is brighter and still uses significantly less energy than halogen bulbs. Without an incandescent filament, the service life also increases, which is almost four times as long as with halogen bulbs at around 2,000 hours. The bluish color due to the higher color temperature even enhances the contrast in good visibility and increases the ability to concentrate. However, xenon light tends to scatter more in fog and haze. The biggest disadvantage is the high cost of complex control and complex repairs. After all, high voltage is only for professionals. Sometimes mercury is also used in xenon bulbs to accelerate the start-up, which represents a considerable environmental hazard. Leading brand manufacturers such as Osram and Philips also offer their xenon lights without the transition metal.
LED lamps – the future belongs to LEDs
In comparison to other lighting systems, light-emitting diodes are not heated radiators. The energy supplied is almost completely converted (approx. 85%) into a light, not to heat. LEDs are particularly economical and work accordingly effectively. LEDs achieve a luminous efficacy that is ten times higher than that of halogen lamps. The fantastic radiance also complemented by outstanding durability. The LED does not simply fail but slowly gets darker. Nevertheless, 50,000 hours of operation are not uncommon. For example, you can install a 9005 led bulb in your low beam.
New headlight technology is entering the market
The lamps are crucial, but they are only part of the equation. Headlights, which are becoming increasingly complex, also ensure safety. They mainly consist of the base for the lamp, a reflector layer that bundles and amplifies the light, and a diffuser that radiates the light cone asynchronously to the front. The right side always illuminated further than the left to avoid dazzling oncoming traffic.